This technique works best if applied to hollow, single walled objects, but as an experiment I applied it to the prosthetic hand I had previously printed for demo purposes in support of Enabling the Future local Chapter . Transparent plastic is also recommended for best outcome.
I chose a pattern (craftsmanspace.com) and using the Velocity Paining tool, applied it to the "hand" g-code ( Flexy-Hand 2 by Gyrobot ), which was pre-sliced. The process is well documented here.
(Above - post-processed g-code preview)
The results were interesting in that while surface patterning was visible (below), the transparent plastic also allowed you to see the internal channels in the "hand" design.
The pattern is visible on the surface, but not very pronounced. I reduced the infill considerably (5%), in the hope of increasing contrast by allowing more light through. Strength loss due to reduced in-fill may make such a part too weak for purpose though.
An unexpected side product of using the transparent material was that the internal channels within the Hand became very visible. Combined with the surface patterning it produces an unusual aesthetic.
( Ran out of transparent filament, hence the truncated print! )
I expect it's quite subjective as to whether the effect is considered aesthetically pleasing of not.
Thought the experiment worth sharing.